episthmes
The programme "Multimedia Glossa" for children with dyslexia Print E-mail
Written by Konstantinos Drosos   

eidikes-mathisiakes-dyskolies

Children with learning difficulties need to be approached in a new, different manner, orientated into an adequate and pleasant educative experience. In this article, we present the new programme Multimedia Glossa as a tool of encouragement towards the development of language skills by preschool and early school children, presenting dyslexia. The use of computers in an interactive environment can promote the language abilities of the children, while cultivating the ground for their proper socialization among their peers.



?? ????????? Multimedia ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????.

? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?? ?? ???????? ????? (???????? ??? ?????) ??????? ?????????????, ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????. (??????????, 2002). ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????, ?? ?????????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????????.

?????? ??? ???????????? Glossa ????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????, ?? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????????????, ??? ?????????, ??? ????????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ?????, ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????. ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????????? ??? ??????????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????????.

?? ????????? Multimedia ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????, ????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????, ??????? - ????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???? ????????. ????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ???? ??????, ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????????. ???????????? ????? ??? ? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????. (Detheridge, 1996). ?? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????????, ????????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ???????????, ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ????????? ???. (???? ?, ?????? ?, ?????????????? ?, 1999)




? ??????, ??????? ?? ?? ??????????? ???????? (Stewig, 1983), ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? (?) ???????? (?????????, ???????, ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????), (?) ????????????? ????????????, ??? (?) ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ??????. ????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ?? ?? ?? ? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????, ???????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????.

?? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????????, ? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? (???????, 1991), ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ????????????????, ??? ?????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????. ?? ?? ????? ????, ?? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????, ??????? ?? ?? ????? ? ?? ????? ??? ?????.

??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ?????. ????????, ?,?? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???????. ? ????????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????, ???????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? (????????, 1981). ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????????????? ???????.

??????? ?? ?? ?????????? (2002), ? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????: ?????????? ?? ??? ? ???????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????? ? ?? ????? ??? ?????, ??????? ? ??????????. ????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????, ?????, ??????, ????????, ?????, ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????????. ??????, ??????, ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????.

???? ???????????, ? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ?? ????? ?. ??? ????? ?. (1998) ? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????, ??? ????????? ??? ????? ?' ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????? - ??? ????????, ?? ?????, ??? ?????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ??, ?????? ?????, ? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????. ? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ????, ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ????? ?' ??? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????.

?? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? (Crystal,1992;1994; Nicolson & Fawcett 1995) ???????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ?) ?? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??????, ?) ?? ?????????????? ?????????, ?) ?? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????. ??? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??????????? ???????????.

?) ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?? ????:

  1. ?????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????.
  2. ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????, ?????? ??? ??????????.
  3. ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????.
  4. ???????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????.
  5. ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????.
  6. ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????.


?) ?? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?????:

  1. ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ????????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?.?. ??? ???? ??? .
  2.  ???????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????.
  3. ???????? ??????? ?????????.
  4. ?????????? ???????? ?.?. ?? ???? ??.
  5.  ????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????.
  6.  ?????????? ????????????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????-??????.


?) ?? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????:

  1. ???????????, ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????????.
  2. ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????.
  3. ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????.
  4. ????? ????????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????????.
  5. ???????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????.

???? ????????? ?????? ???????????, (Stanovich, Cunningham&Cramer,1984; Rack,1997; Geilzheiser & Wood,1998) ???? ????? ??????? ??????, ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ?????, ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????????. ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????????. ??? ??? ???? ????, ? ?????????? ??? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????????,  ????? ???????? (??????????- 1988 ??? 1994) ?? ????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????, ????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????????.(Edelen-Smith,2001).

????? ???????? ??? ???????????  ????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????? (??????????????? ???????? ??????,1995, ??????????,1988 & 1994), ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????, ???? ???? ?? ????????????? ??? ????? ????????????????? ??? ??????????????? ???? ???? ????. ? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????????, ???? ?? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? (??????, 1996, ????????,2001) ??? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????.

? Day(1995) ?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?????:

  1. ?????????????? ?? "??????" ???????, ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????????? (physical access),
  2. ?????????????? ?? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????? (cognitive access),
  3. ?????????????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????? (supportive access).

? Singleton (1994;1997;2001) ??????????? ??? ???? ? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ??? ? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????. ??' ????, ? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ???? ?????????????.

???? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ????????????, ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????, ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ???. ??? ??? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? (Brooks, 1997). ????????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????????, ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???? (Detheridge, 1996). ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???.

???????, ? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????. ??????, ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? (Rooms, 2000). ?????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ????? ??????: ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? (Detheridge, 1996). ???? ? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????.


?? ?????????

?? ????????? ????????? Multimedia glossa ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????, ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????? ??????, ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????????, ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????. ??? ??? ????? ????, ? ?????, ? ??????????? ??? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????? (?????? ??? ???????????). ??????, ? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????.

?? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??????????, ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ???? ????? ????????????????. ??? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????, ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????-?????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????, ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????, ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????, ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????????.

? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ???? ? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??????, ??? ????? ? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????? , ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????. ??????????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ???????????, ????? ? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ????????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ????? ? ???? ??????, ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ???? ????????? ???????, ??? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????????.

?????, ?????????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ? ??????????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????. ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ????:

?) ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????? & ????? (??????????? ????????), ???????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????, ??????????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????,  ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? (?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????).

?) ????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ????????? (????????? ??? ?????), ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????-?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? -?????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????.

?) ????????????? ??? ????????. O ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????????, ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????, ??? ??????? ??? ??? ????????????????. ???????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????.

?)  ?????, ??? ???????? ??? 3?? ??????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????. ?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???? ?? ?????????.

???????? ????????????

? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????. ?? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????, ????????? ????? ??? ?? ????, ?? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????, ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ????????? ???, ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ???? ??????????, ?? ???????, ??? ???????????????, ??? ????????? ???????. (Detheridge, 1996).

???? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? computers (Rooms, 2000). ?? ???? ???? ???? ?????????? ? Papert,(1980) ???? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????, ?? ?????? ????????? ?,?? ???????.

?? ????????? ????????? Glossa ???????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????.

? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????, ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???????????? ????????, ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????. ??? ??? ????, ? ??????? ??? ? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????????, ?? ???????????? ? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????, ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????????, ?? ????? ?? ????????????, ?? ??????????? ? ?? ????????????? ?? ????????.

?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????, ???? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ??????.

?????, ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???. ????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????, ???? ????????????? ??? ?? ??????????, ????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??????????? ? ?? ??????????? ????????, ???? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ?????, ???????????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????? (?????,1997).

????????????

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Crystal, D. (1994). Child Language, Learning and Linguistics, London Edward Arnold Publishers, 2nd Ed.

Day J, (1995). Access Technology: Making the Right Choice, (2nd edition) Coventry, NCET

Detheridge ?,(1996). Information Technology. In: Carpenter, B., Ashdow, R. and Bovair, K. (eds) Enabling Access: Effective teaching and Learning for Pupils with Learning Difficulties, London, David Fulton.

Edelen-Smith P, (2001). How now Brown cow: Phonological activities for collaborative classrooms. In: Intervention in schooland clinic, Vol. 33, no.2, pp.103-111, pro-ed,Inc.

Geilzheiser L, & Wood D, (1998). Early reading and instruction. In: B. Wong (ed.), Learning about learning disabilities, pp.313-337, San Diego, CA.

Nicolson R, & Fawcett A,(1995). Dyslexia is more than a phonological deficit. In: Dyslexia, Vol.1, pp.19-36.

Papert S,(1980). Mindstorms: Children, Computers and Powerful Ideas. In: Pelpel N,(2000). Dessine-moi une souris. Etude comparative des reprsentations des lves, E.P.I., no 100, pp. 133-146.

Rack J,(1987). Orthographic and phonetic coding in developmental dyslexia. In: British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 37, pp. 187-206.

Rooms M,(2000). Information and Communication Technology and Dyslexia. In: Townend, J. and Turner, M. (editors) Dyslexia in Practice: A Guide for Teachers, New York,  Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Singleton C,(1994). Computers and Dyslexia: Implications for Policy and Practice. In: Singleton, C. (ed) Computers and Dyslexia: Educational Applications of New Technology, Hull, Dyslexia Computer Resource Centre.

Singleton C, (1997). Computerised assessment of reading. In: J. Beech and C. Singleton (Eds.) The Psychological Assessment of Reading, London, Routledge, pp. 257-278.

Singleton C, Thomas K, & Home J, (2000). Computerised cognitive profiling and the development of reading. In: Journal of research in Reading, Vol.23, pp.158-180.

Singleton C, (2001). Computer-based assessment in education. In: Educational and Child Psychology, Vol.18, pp.58-74.

Stanovich K, Cunningham A, & Cramer B, (1984). Assessing phonological awareness in kindergarten children: Issues of task compability. In: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Vol. 38, pp.175-190.

Stewig J,(1983). Exploring language Arts in Elementary Classroom, New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

?????????? ?, (1988). ???????? ???:   ???????????   ???   ?????????? ??????????????, ?.1, ?????, ???????? ????????.

?????????? ?, (1994). ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????????, ???????????, ???????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????????? ???????.

????? ?, & ????? ?, (1998). ????????. ????????????-????????????. ??????? ????????? ????????????, ?????, ?????? ??????????? ???????.

?????????? ?,(2002). ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????. ???: ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ?. 14-52.

???? ?, ?????? ?, ?????????????? ?, (1999). ???????????? ?????????????? ? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????: ????????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ??????, GUTENBERG.

???? B,(1997). ?? ???? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????: ?? ????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????. ???: ???????? ??????????, No 92, ?. 24-31 (?' ????), ?? 93, ?. 52-59 (?' ????).

???? ?, (1997).  H ??????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ????? / ??????, ?????????? 1, ????? 1.1, ???????? ?.(??? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????).

?????? ?, (1996). ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????. ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????, ?????, Gutenberg.

???????? ?.?, (2001). ? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????, ??????,  ??????.

??????????????? ???????? ??????, (1995). ??? ???????????????? ??????? ??? ???????, ????????.

???????? ?,(1981). ????????, ? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? (?????????? ???????), ?????, ????????????? ?????????.

???????? ?,(1992). ? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????   ??   ???   ??????   ???   ??   ???????? ???????????. ???: ?????????,?. 1, ?. 30- 43.

??????? ?, (1991). ?? ??????????? ??? ???????. ???: ?????????, ?.65, ?. 167-183.

 

2008-2013 Perceptum magazine
ISSN: 1792-2933


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