episthmes
Legal responsibility due to prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis & eugenic abortion in Greece Print E-mail
Written by Kostis Voumvourakis   

prenatal_diagnosis

Medical malpractice following prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis often leads to procreating handicapped or seriously ill children. In this article an effort has been made to present and evaluate the legal claims of parents as well as those of damaged children (!), when such cases are brought before domestic Courts. Serious legal, ethical and social issues are raised by the legal claims when presented by the children. These problems are identified and analyzed taking into account both Greek recent case law and some ground breaking foreign judgments.In addition, Greek legal regime on eugenic abortion is considered too strict; parents are forced to act in a rather not legally compatible way, in order to prevent an upcoming birth. Thus, in reality, criminal law seriously intervenes in family planning, although the role of the legislature should be exclusively informative and by no means invasive. Finally, several conclusions are drawn and a few suggestions are being proposed, in order to effectively alter the Greek (legal) reality on these matters. 

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I. ????????????? ???????

????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? (prenatal diagnosis PD) ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? in vivo ?? ?? ???????      ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????. ?? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ??????????? (?.?. ??????????????, ??????? ??? ???????? ???????) ? ??????????? (????????????, ??????? ????????????). ?? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ???????????. ?? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? (?.?. ???????? Down) ??? ????????? ???????? (?.?. ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????) ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? (?.?. ?? ???? ??? ???????). ????????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????.

II. ??????????????? ???????

??????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????????[2] (preimplantation genetic diagnosis PGD) ?????????? ? in vitro ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ??????????? ????????????, ?? ????? ??? ????????????? ???????????. ? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???? ??? ???????. ???????????? ?? 1 -2 ????????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????, ????? ???? ?? ?????????????. ? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ???????????, ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????????.

????????? ?? ???????[3] ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ????? ???????. ??????? ??, ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????.

III. ??????????? ????????????? ?????????

???? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????, ????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????. ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???????????[4]: ???? ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????? ???, ???? ??? ??? ????? ? ???? ?? ???????? ???, ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????. ????????????, ? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????, ? ?? ???????????, ? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??? (?.?. ? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????, ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ????????. ? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ????????????, ?? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???? ?? ??? ?? HIV ??? ??????, ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ????????). ?? ????? ??? ???????????, ????? ?????? ???, ?? ??? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????, ?? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????.

??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ?? wrongful life[5], ???? ?????? ? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????????. ? ??????, ??????, ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ??????? ? ??? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ???????, ???? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????. ?.?. ? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? (???? ????? ? ?????????? ???????), ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????. ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ????????????? ????? ??? ??? 35 ???? ? ???????, ???? ?? ?????????? ????????, ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? 21 (???????? Down). ?? ????? ??? ???????????, ???? ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ????? ???, ???????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???????? ? ??? ?????????, ? ????? ???????????????? (?.?. ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????) ? ?? ????????? (?????? ? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ????????????), ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????.

???? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????? (??????? ??????????? ???????) ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ???????????, ?? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??????.

??????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ?.??. ?? ???? ??????????, ???? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ????????????, ???? ?????? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????, ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???. ???? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? wrongful life ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????, ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????. ????????, ???? ??????????? wrongful life, ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ??????, ???? ????? ? ????? ??? ?????? ? ?????????? ?? ??????????. ???? ??? ?? ???? ???????????  ??????????, ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????, ????? ? ???? ? ??????? ??? ???????. ?? ???????????? ?????, ???? ?? ????????? ???????, ???? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ???????, ??????, ???? ?? ???????, ? ????? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ???.

IV. ?????? ??????

???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????????, ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???, ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? 914 ?.?. (????????????? ??????). ??????, ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????? (??????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????), ????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????, ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? (????????????? ??????)[6]. ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ???? ??? ??????, ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?/??? ?????????? ?????????? ???, ??? ????????? ????????[7] ????? ???? ??????, ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? (??????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????) ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????. ??????, ??????, ????????? ??? ? ?????????? ??? ????????????, ???????? ???? ? ????????????? ??? ??? ? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????.

????????, ???? ? ???????? ? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? (??????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????), ?????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????. ??????? ?? ??? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????? 929 ??? 931 ?.?. ? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????????, ???? ??? ???????? ?????, ???????? ??? ?????? 36 ?.?. (?????????????), ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ????????. ??? ??? ???? ??????, ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? 929 ?.?. - ?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ?? ??. 2 ??? ???????? ?????. ??????, ???? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????, ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? (?.?. ???????, ???????), ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????. ?????, ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????????, ?? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???. ??????? ?? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? (??????) ??????? ???? ??????, ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????. ??????? ?? ???? ??????????, ? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ??? ???????.

?????????, ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ?? ???????? ????????.

V. ??????? ??????

???? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????; ?? ??????? ??????[8] ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? (????, ??????, ??????? ???????). ???? ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????:

?) ?? ?????, ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????, ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? (leges artis). ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???????, ?????? ????? ? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????. ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????.

?) ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? standards ??? ???????? ????????????. ?? ??????? standard ?????? ?? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????. ? ??????, ??????, ???????, ???? ???? ?????????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???. ???????, ?? ???????? ???????????, ????? ? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ?????????.

?) ?? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????, ?????? ??? ??????? ??????????????. ????, ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????, ? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????. ???????????, ???????? ????? ? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??????, ?????????????, ?? ????? ????????, ??? ???? ?? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? standard.

?? ?????, ?? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????????????. ??????, ????????? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ? ??? ??????? ??????, ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????. ? ???? salus aegroti suprema lex est (? ????????? ????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ????????) ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????.

?????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ?????? ? ??? ???????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ???? ???? ??????????? ???. ??????, ? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????????????? ????????, ???? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????, ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?.?. ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????.

?????????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??????????? wrongful life ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????, ???? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????????, ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ? ?????? ????????? 21 (???????? Down) ??? ?????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????????, ??? ????? ? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?????. ?? ??????????, ?????????????[9] ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????, ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????. ? ????????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????, ??? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ????????. ??????, ? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????, ??? ????? ? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?????????. ????, ? ?????? ?????????? ??????, ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???. ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????, ?? ? ???????????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????, ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????. ??? ? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????????, ?????? ??????, ?????, ???????, ? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ?????.

VI. ?? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??????

?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ? ????????????? ?????[10]. ???? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ?????? ????? ? ???? ? ??????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????, ?? ?????, ????? ???? ?? ????????, ?? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???, ?? ??????? ??? ???????. ?? ????? ??? ????, ?? ??????????? wrongful life ?????? ??????  ????????? ??? ????? ????????. ????????????, ???????? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????????, ?? ??????????????? ?? ?????, ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????. ?? ?????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????, ??? ??????? ?.??., ????? ?? ???? ????????????? ???????????[11].

???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???????. ? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????, ???? ??????, ???????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????????[12], ????? ?? ?????? ??? ? ?????????. ????, ? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????.

VII. ???????? ????????? ??????

? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?? ???? ???????????, ???? ??? ???? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ???????? ???. ??????? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????, ?? ????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????????, ??????????, ????, ??????????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????(!). ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ? ????????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???????????, ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? (???. 2 ????.) ??? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????? (???. 21 ???. 2 ????.).

?????????, ???????? ??? ????????? ???????, ???? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????, ?? ??????????, ????? ???????. ????????????, ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????????, ? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????????, ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????. ???, ????, ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ? ???? ??? ?????, ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???, ???? ?? ?? ?????? ???????, ??? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????. ????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????.

??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ??????. ? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?????? (???. 932 ?.?.) ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????, ???? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ?? ???? ????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ????, ?? ?????????? ? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ???? ??????. ????, ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????????? wrongful life ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ???????, ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????. ?????????, ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???????. ????????, ?? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????, ???? ???? ???? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ???. ?????, ??????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??????, ??????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????, ???? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????????. ???? ??????????, ????, ????????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????.

???????????, ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???, ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????. ????, ?????, ?? ????????????? ??? ????? ? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ???????, ?????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????, ????? ?? ??? ??????, ?? ???? ??? ???? ??????, (?? ?????) ?? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? (!), ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????; ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ????, ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ? ??????? Perruche[13]. ? ????????? , ??????, ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????. ?? ????? 1 ??? ????? 2002-203 ??? 4/4/2002 ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????.

? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????: ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????, ???? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????????. ????????, ? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????. ?? ???? ?????????, ????, ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????, ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????.

VIII. ???????? ?????????

?????? ?? ????????? ? ????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ??????????????. ? ????????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ??. ?????. 5152/2002 ??? ???????? ?????? {???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? (?.?.?.) ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? (?.?.?.)}, ? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????, ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????. ????????????, ?? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????????, ???? ? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? (????? ???? ??? 25 ?????????) ?? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ???? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??????????, ????, ???? ?? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????, ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? (??? ?? ???? ??? ??????) ??? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? (??? ?? ???? ??? ???????). ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????, ? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????????. ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???, ?? ???? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ?????????, ????? ? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? 24 ????????? ??? ???????? ? ????? (???. 304 ?.?.), ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ???? ??????, ? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????????, ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???. ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ? ????? ?????, ??? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????????.

???? ??????? ?? ?????. 4865/2006 ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? {???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? (?.?.?.) ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? (?.?.?)}, ?? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????, ???? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????. ?? ???????????? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ???????. ???? ?????, ?? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? Down. ????, ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????, ?? ??? ????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ????, ???? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????, ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????????. ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ??????. ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????, ????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?????, ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???, ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????????. ??????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ???????????, ????? ??? ????? ???? (? ????? ?????) ??? ?????? ?? ?????, ????? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ???????, ???? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ????. ??????, ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? Down ?? ????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???. 304 ?.?., ???????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????. ??? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???????, ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????.

?? ??? ??????? ?? ?????. 544/2007 ?? ??????? ??????? {???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? (?.?.?.) ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? (?.?.?.)} ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????. ?? ???????????, ????, ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????, ?? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????. ??????? ??????, ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????. ??????, ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ????. ?? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ??????, ?????, ????? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????, ?? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????, ?????????????? ??? ??? (???????????) ?????????? ??????,  ????? ? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????. ?? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? (?????? ???????) ??? ?????, ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????. ? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ? ???? ?????????? ??????? - ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ???? ???????? ????. ??????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ????, ???????, ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????. ????????, ?????? ??? ? ??????? ? ?? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? (???. 5 ???. 1 ????.) ??? ?? ? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ????????? ???? ??????? ???, ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ???, ? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????. ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ? ???????, ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??????????????, ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??? ? ?????.

??????????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????, ? ??????? ?? ?????. 4591/2009 ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? {???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? (?.?.?.) ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? (?.?.?.)} ????????? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ???? 350.000 ???? ??? ???????, ?????? ???????? ???? 700.000 ????. ???? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ????????? ?????, ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????, ???????? ??????, ??????????? ??? ???????????, ? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????. ????, ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????, ??? ????? ?????????, ????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? (? ?????? ??? ???? ??????????? ????? ??? 24? ???????? ??? ??????). ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? (? ????? ??????? ??? ??????, ????? ???? ?????? ????????) ???? ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ????, ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????, ???? ???? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????, ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????.

?????, ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?????. 2839/2008 ?? ????????? ??????????? ????/????? {???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? (?.?.?.) ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? (?.?.?)} ???????????? ??? ????? ????, ????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????. ??????????, ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ??? 22? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????, ? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???????????. ????, ????, ?????? ? ?????? ??? ???????, ?? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??? ??????, ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????. ??? ????????, ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ????. ??????????, ?? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ? ???????? ???. ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????????? (??? ?????? ?????????? ??????) ??? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????. ??????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????. ????, ? ??????? ??? ? ????????? ??? ??? ???, ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ????????, ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??????  ??????????? ?? ?????, ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ?????, ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????, ???? ? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ? ????????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????????. ???????, ? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ???.

IX. ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????????

??? ???? ??? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????? ??? 24? ???????? ??? ?????? (???. 304 ???. 4 ???. ? ?.?.). ?? ???? ?? ??????, ???? ???????? ??? ??????[14] ??? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????????? (?.?. ? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??? 24? ???????? ???? ???????? ? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????, ? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??????, ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????, ? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????):

-       ? ?????? ?????? ????? ? ??? ????? ???????. ?? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????????. ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????????, ? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ????????? ???, ???? ????? ?? ????? ??????, ?? ??? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??? ? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????. ???????????, ??????????, ??????, ? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????????, ???? ????? ? ??????, ? ??????? ? ? ??????, ???? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???????????. ?? ??????, ??????, ????????? ?????.

-       ? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????. ?? ??????, ??????, ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????, ????????????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????, ? ?????? ???????????? ??? ? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? (???. 304 ???. 4 ???. ? ?.?.), ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????, ????? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ?????, ??????????? ???????? ????????. ?? ??? ????? ?????, ? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??? ????? ????????.

?? ???? ?????????, ?? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????? ? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????????. ???? ??? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ?????????? 24 ????????? ??????. ???? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ? ????????? ????????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???????, ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ????????, ??? ?????????[15].

??????, ?????????????[16] ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ? ?????, ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?? ?? ????????? ? ???. ????????, ? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????.

?????????, ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????, ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????, ???? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????, ???? ?????? ?????????? ? ??? ? ? ????? ??? ??????, ???? ?????????????. ???????, ???????? ??? ? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ???, ???? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????????????, ????? ?? ??????, ????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????.

????????, ???????????[17] ? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? 304 ?.?., ???? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??????, ??????? ?? ?? ????????? ???????. ??????, ?????????? ? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????, ??? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?????????. ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ??????, ???? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????? (???????? ?????????, ?????? ???????????, ????? ???? ??? ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ?.?. ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????, ??????????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ???????????, ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????, ????????? ????????? ???????????) ?? ????? ?????.

X. ????????????

?? ??????????, ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????:

-       ? ?????? ?????? ?????? (litigation explosion) ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ???, ???? ??? ?????????????? ??? ??? ??????????????.

-       ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ??? ???????????, ???? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????????, ?????? ?????????? ?? ?? ?????????????, ???? ?? ???????????, ???? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ???????. ??????????, ?? ???? ?????????????.

-       ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????.

-       ??? ? ???? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??? ????????, ?? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????, ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????.

-       ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? (?? ???? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????, ???? ?????????????).

XI. ?????????

??????? ?? ????:

-       ?? ????????????, ????????, ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????, ???? ?? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???? ????? ?????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????.

-       ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???????????, ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ????????, ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????????.

-       ?? ???????????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????, ??????????? ?? ????????????, ??? ????? ?????????? ??????, ?? ??????? ????????.

-       ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ???????????, ?? ???????? ?? ????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????, ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????, ?? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? - ??? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????.

-       ?? ???????????? ? ??????? ??? ???. 304 ?.?., ???? ?? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??????, ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ????? (??????? ?.?.) ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? 24 ?????????.

-       ?? ?????????? ? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??????????????, ???????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??????????? ????????, ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????.

-       ?? ????? ???????? ? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??????. ??????, ???? ?? ?????? ?????????????, ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ???? (???. 57??. ?.?.), ???? ????????????, ?? ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???? ???????????? (???. 914 ?.?.).

-       ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? (punitive damages ?? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???????????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????????????) ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????????.


???????????? & ???????????

  1. ???????? ?. ???????? ?., ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, 2010
  2. ?????????? ?????????? ?., ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, 2003
  3. ?????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? 2000 2007, ????????? ???????? ???????????, 2007
  4. ??????? ?????? & ????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? & ?????????, 2009, ?/??? ?????? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????

  1. ?????????? ?., ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? (wrongful life), Digesta 2004, ???. 471 483
  2. ??????? ?., ?? ????????????? ????????? ??? ? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ???? ??????? Perruche, ??? 27 2001, ???. 579 - 590


[1] ???? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????????????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? 22/2/2011. ?????????? ??? ??????? ???? ? ??. ????? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????, ?????????? ? ?. ???????? ????????, ????????? ??? ??. ??????? ??? ?.?.?., ??? ??????????? ? ??. ???????, ????? ???????.

[2] ??. ??????? ?. ??????? ?., ??????? ?????? - ???????? ?????????, 2010 ???. 171: ????????????? ??? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ?.?. ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? (?????? ?? ????) ? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????????, ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??????????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?.??. ???????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????????. ??????, ????????? ??? ? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????, ???? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????.

[3] ??. ??????? ?. ??????? ?., ??????? ??????, ???????? ?????????, 2010 ???. 169: ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ??? Oviedo (???. 12) ?? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????.

??. ?????? ?., ?? ????????????? ????????? ??? ? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ???? ??????? Perruche, ??? 27 ???. 586 590: ? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ?????????, ? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?? ????????. ??????, ? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????????????? ???? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? Down, ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ???? ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????. ???? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??? Oviedo ??? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ???????????. ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?????????, ????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????????. ?????, ???? ?? ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????, ???? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ???????, ??? ?? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????.

[4] ??. ?????????? ?., ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? (wrongful life), Digesta 2004, ???. 471 473

[5] ??? ???????????, ? ???? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ?????, ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ? ???? wrongful birth. ????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????.

[6] ??. ?????????? ?., ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? (wrongful life), Digesta 2004, ???. 474, ??????. 8: ?? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ?????, ?????? ??? ?. 2251/1994, ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????. ????????, ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????. 4591/2009 (?.?. ???. 12), ???? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ????? ? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????. ??????, ? ??????? ??? ???. 8 ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ? ???? ??????? ??? ??????????. ?? ?? ???????? ???? ? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???. 8 ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ?? ????? ?????????????? ??? ?? ????? ? ??????????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????. ????????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ??? ?? ?????, ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????????, ??? ? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ???.

[7] ??. ?????????? ?., ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? (wrongful life), Digesta 2004, ???. 478-479: ?????? ???? ??????????? wrongful life ? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????, ?? ??? ?????? ???, ?? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ???????, ? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????, ??????????? ???? ?? ?? ?????????????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??????. ????????, ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?????, ?? ???? ??? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????, ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????????? ??? ????????. ?? ????? ??? ????, ?? ???? ??????, ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ????? ??? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???, ??????????????, ???? ??? ? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ??????, ???? ??? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????, ?? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????, ?.?. ???? ???????????? ???????????. ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? (rechtmassiges Alternativverhalten) ??? ????????????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????. ???????????, ?? ???? ???? ?? ???????????? ?? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????????.

[8] ??. ?????????? ?., ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? (wrongful life), Digesta 2004, ???. 475-478.

[9] ??. ?????????? ?., ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? (wrongful life), Digesta 2004, ???. 477, ??????. 24: ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????. ??????? ? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? (perte d une chance de survie ou de guerison)

[10] ??. ?????????? ?., ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? (wrongful life), Digesta 2004, ???. 479-483.

[11] ??. ??????? ?. ??????? ?., ??????? ??????, ???????? ?????????, 2010 ???. 170 ????. 142 ??? ?????? ?., ?? ????????????? ????????? ??? ? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ???? ??????? Perruche, ??? 27 ???. 583 ??.:

??????? ????? ?? ?????????:

?) Kelly Molenaar ???? ????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????, ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????,

?) Perruche ???? ?? 2000 ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? . ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????. ??????????, ????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????????????? ???????, ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ???????????. ??????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ????????: ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ????, ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??????????, ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? (?????????? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??????), ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ???, ??? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ????????, ???? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??? ??????, ? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????? ????.

?? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????, ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ??? ? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? (?? ????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????), ?? ????????, ????, ?? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????. ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????????, ?? ????? a contrario, ???????? ??? ? ???????? ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????????, ???? ? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? (?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????). ??????????, ??????, ? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????????.

? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????. ?????????????? ????? ? ????????? ????? (100) ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? (Collectif des parents contre l handiphobie) ??? ??? 1? ?????????? 2000 ????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????. ? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????, ? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????. ? ????? ??? ????? ?????, ????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????, ???? ? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?? actio popularis.

[12] ??????? ?? ?? ????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????????? (???. 57 ??. ?.?.), ??????????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????????, ????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????????? (???. 914 ??. ?.?.), ???? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????, ????? ?? ?????????? (??????) ?????????? ??????? ???????????, ??? ? ????? ???? ??? ?????????????.

[13] ??. ??????. 9.

[14] ??. ?????????? ?????????? ?., ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? & ?????????, 2009 ???. 53-54.

[15] ??. Fuchs Helmet, ??????? ?????? ??? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? & ?????????, 2009 ???. 76: ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? 24?? ????????? ??? ??????, ? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ???? ?? ??? ????????????, ??????, ???????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ???, ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???. ????, ? ????????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ????????, ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????, ?? ?????? ????????????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????.

[16] ??. ?????????? ?????????? ?., ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? & ?????????, 2009 ???. 55.

[17] ??. ?????????? ?????????? ?., ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? & ?????????, 2009 ???. 56-57 ??? Fuchs Helmet, ??????? ?????? ??? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? & ?????????, 2009 ???. 77-78.


 

2008-2013 Perceptum magazine
ISSN: 1792-2933


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